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Air conditioning system basics 

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In the refrigeration cycle, a pump transfers heat from a lower temperature source into a higher temperature heat sink. Heat will naturally flow in the opposite direction. This is the most common type of air conditioning. A refrigerated air conditioning system works in much the same way pumping heat out of the room in which it stands.

This cycle takes advantage of the universal gas law PV = nRT, where P is pressure, V is volume, R is the universal gas constant, T is temperature, and n is the number of molecules of gas (1 mole = 6.022×1023 molecules).

The most common refrigeration cycle uses an electric motor to drive a compressor. In an automobile the compressor is driven by a pulley on the engine’s crankshaft, with both using electric motors for air circulation. Since evaporation occurs when heat is absorbed, and condensation occurs when heat is released, air conditioners are designed to use a compressor to cause pressure changes between two compartments, and actively pump a coolant around an enclosed system. The cooling liquid, or refrigerant is pumped into the cooled compartment (the evaporator coil). Low pressure then causes the refrigerant to evaporate taking the heat with it. In the other compartment (the condenser), the refrigerant vapour is compressed and forced through another heat exchange coil, condensed into a liquid which then rejects the heat previously absorbed from the cooled space.

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